Definition of Jammu
Definition of Kashmir
Kashmir, located on the northernmost region of India’s subcontinent, is famed for its breathtaking natural beauty and is popular tourist spot known for its handicrafts, agriculture and horticulture industries as well as handwoven carpets and pashminas crafted of intricately-carved wood artifacts handwoven carpets pashminas made by handloom. Tourists come here from all around to enjoy nature trails adventure activities spiritual retreats!
Jammu and Kashmir Comparison Table
|Location||Southern region of J&K||The northern region of J&K borders Pakistan and China|
|Topography||Plains and Hills||Mountain ranges, valleys and lakes|
|Climate Change||Subtropical to temperate||Alpine, subalpine and temperate|
|Ethnicity||Primarily Dogra||Primarily Kashmiri|
|Religion||Hinduism and Islam||Islam and Hinduism|
|The Language of the Speaker||Dogri, Hindi, Punjabi||English, Urdu and Kashmiri|
|Agriculture, tourism and small-scale industries||Agriculture, horticulture and handicrafts as well as tourism|
|Culture||A rich cultural heritage, with festivals, art forms and cuisine unique to each culture||The rich tradition of literature, art and music is known for its handwoven carpets and pashminas, as well as wooden artifacts.|
|Tourism||Vaishno Dev, Katra, Patnitop and Jammu City are all popular tourist destinations.||Srinagar is a major tourist destination, as are Gulmarg and Pahalgam.|
|Education and Healthcare||There are several hospitals and universities that are renowned||There are several hospitals and universities that are renowned|
|Political Status||Integrated into the Union Territory of India||Integrated into the Union Territory of India, with special autonomy powers|
Note: This table is not comprehensive and is meant to give a quick comparison between Jammu Kashmir and other key areas.
Demographics and Geography
Jammu and Kashmir, commonly referred to by its Hindi name of Jammu Kashmir, lies in northernmost India and shares borders with Pakistan on its west, China on its northeast, Himachal Pradesh in its northwest corner and Punjab to its southwest corner, Himachal Pradesh further to its southwest as well as Indian states Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to its south. Jammu Kashmir itself can be divided into three sections; Jammu Kashmir proper; Ladakh being one.
Jammu, located in southern Jammu and Kashmir, consists of both flat and hilly terrain. Bound by Himalayas on one side and Shivalik Range on the other, Tawi River flows through this region serving as an integral water supply source to its residents. Jammu experiences humid subtropical weather with hot summers.
Kashmir is an alluring mountainous area boasting diverse terrain including snow-covered peaks and verdant valleys amidst verdant meadows and tranquil lakes. Bound by Himalayas and Pir Panjal range, Kashmir lies off to one side from India while its climate varies between sub-tropical alpine with mild summers and cold winters.
Jammu and Kashmir is home to a population that represents various ethnic and religious communities, most prominently the Dogras who represent an indigenous ethnic group of India. Jammu boasts predominantly Hindu populations while Kashmir primarily Muslim. Additionally, many also practice Sikhism Buddhism or Christianity throughout this area.
Dogri is most frequently spoken in Jammu while Kashmiri predominates in Kashmir; both regions also understand and speak Urdu and English fluently. Jammu and Kashmir boasts an overall literacy rate between 68%-72% with significant variations between districts and communities.
Geographical location of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh form the three primary regions in Jammu & Kashmir. Jammu lies at its southern end in Himalayan foothills at 32.17 to 33.13 latitude and between 73.2 to 75.26 longitude respectively.
Kashmir lies to the north of Jammu and is bordered by Pir Panjal range and Himalayas, covering 33 degrees North latitude to 35 degrees North latitude with longitude between 73.55degE to 76degE.
Ladakh lies to the east of Kashmir and borders both Tibet on its east border, Himachal Pradesh in India to its south border, and latitude 32.29 to 36 12 N and longitude 76 46 to 79.00 E respectively.
Jammu and Kashmir covers an area of 222,236 sq km, covering more than 43% of India. Following India’s decision in August 2019 to revoke Article 370 and create two union territories within Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh respectively, its population increased substantially.
Physical features of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir share many physical characteristics which distinguishes between themselves from each other:
Jammu and Kashmir is home to diverse physical features and landscapes, which span across three parts: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh – each possessing different physical traits. Here are some major characteristics that characterise Jammu and Kashmir:
Mountains: The Himalayan range looms large over Jammu and Kashmir’s northern parts, featuring mountains that soar above 8,000 meters – such as K2, Nanga Parbat and Mount Haramukh – that dominate the northern portions.
Valleys: Jammu and Kashmir’s Kashmir Valley is perhaps best-known as being enclosed on all sides by Himalayan Mountains and boasting natural beauty with tranquil landscapes and vibrant foliage. Jammu and Kashmir is home to numerous stunning lakes, such as Dal Lake, Wular Lake and Manasbal Lake, all providing essential sources of freshwater that support vibrant aquatic communities.
Rivers: This region boasts numerous rivers, such as the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Tawi rivers that support agriculture as well as providing livelihood to residents living there. These waters also play an integral part of tourism development efforts within this area.
Forests: Jammu and Kashmir is home to lush forests covering about 20% of its total land area, providing habitats for diverse wildlife such as snow leopards, Himalayan black bears and musk deers.
Glaciers: This region boasts several glaciers, such as Siachen Glacier – second only to Antarctica for total length outside polar regions.
Plateaus: Ladakh plateau is an area located in eastern Jammu and Kashmir and known for its high altitude desert landscape, barren hills, and high-altitude lakes.
Jammu and Kashmir is home to some of India’s most distinctive landscapes and diverse regions, offering both stunning natural beauty and thrilling adventures.
Jammu and Kashmir Demographics
Jammu-Kashmir is an ethnic and religious melting pot, comprising diverse populations in both Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
Jammu – Jammu’s population consists primarily of Hindus; roughly 66%, to be exact. Of its total population of 289k residents, approximately 29% identify as Muslims while Sikhs or other religions make up the remaining 3. Dogras represent one major ethnic group found within Jammu; they make up most Hindus living there and speak Dogri as its official language.
Kashmir: Muslims make up 96% of its population in Kashmir; Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists account for the remainder. Kashmiris make up the largest ethnic group within Kashmir’s boundaries – they speak the Kashmiri dialect and most are predominantly Muslim.
Ladakh: Ladakh’s population primarily comprises Buddhists (46%). Muslims account for 40%, and Hindus for 12%; Ladakhis are the primary ethnic group that speak Ladakhi as they are predominantly Buddhist.
Jammu & Kashmir currently boasts an overall literacy rate of 68%, although there can be significant disparity among districts and communities, and between males and females regarding levels of literacy; male rates tend to outnumber female literacy rates significantly in this region; efforts are currently made to both increase literacy rates as well as narrowing gender gaps throughout Jammu & Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir is home to an ethnically and religiously diverse population living harmoniously together.
History and Political Status
History: Jammu and Kashmir has an expansive and long history dating back to Neolithic settlement. Subsequent dynasties included Mauryan Empire and Mughal Empire rule over Jammu and Kashmir.
British Control: Beginning in 1846, Britain established Jammu and Kashmir under their rule until 1947 when India gained independence.
Partition of India in 1947: India was partitioned between India and Pakistan with Jammu and Kashmir being split between both nations; although Jammu and Kashmir was predominantly Muslim-ruled at that time and had the option to join either, Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir decided not join Pakistan for various reasons, however this choice was disapproved of by their leader and they became independent again later.
First Indo: Pak War. In 1947, Pakistan sent troops into Jammu & Kashmir which resulted in the first Indo-Pak War and resulted in its resolution in 1948 with two parts being subdivided between Indian-controlled Jammu & Kashmir and Azad Jammu and Kashmir administered by each side.
United Nations Intervention: In 1948, the UN took steps to intervene by passing a Resolution calling for a plebiscite on Jammu-Kashmir’s future status; unfortunately due to disagreements between India and Pakistan the referendum never happened.Article 370 was established as part of India’s Constitution to give Jammu and Kashmir special status and grant an increased degree of autonomy for this region.
Second Indo-Pak War (1965-65) : The Second Indo-Pak War broke out over Jammu & Kashmir territory dispute in 1965 and both parties retained their positions following it.
Since the late 80s, Jammu and Kashmir has experienced insurgency and terrorist activities by militant groups demanding independence or merging with Pakistan.
Revocation of Article 350: On August 13, 2019 the Indian government decided to annul Article 370 which granted Jammu and Kashmir special status and divided it up into two Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
India and Pakistan remain at odds regarding Jammu-Kashmir’s political status; violence and political tension remain widespread within this region despite attempts at resolution through dialogue.
Culture & Traditions
Jammu-Kashmir is home to diverse cultures and traditions. People of different ethnic and religious groups reside together peacefully here. Here are some cultural & traditional aspects of Jammu & Kashmir that you should know about.
Jammu-Kashmir cuisine reflects influences from India, Persian and Central Asian traditions. Rogan Josh is one of the region’s signature dishes; others include Yakni and Wazwan. Kashmiri food also makes use of locally produced saffron as it adds color.
Jammu-Kashmir’s music and dance are integral parts of its culture. The region is well known for its longstanding folk traditions such as Rouf, Kud and Bhand Jashan dance styles; Kashmiris use Santoor instruments while Jammeruians utilize Dhol, Chimtas or other musical instruments in Dogri folk music performances.
Jammu & Kashmir offers many festivals throughout the year. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha are major celebrations in this region; Diwali, Navratri and Baisakhi also take place regularly; furthermore there are regional celebrations like Shivratri Mela.
Jammu-Kashmir is also known for its arts and crafts traditions, such as Pashmina Shawls, Papier Mache sculptures, Woodcarvings, carpet weaving and handmade Kashmiri carpets with intricate patterns which take months of patience to finish weaving.
Jammu and Kashmir is home to numerous religious landmarks including mosques, temples, and shrines which draw tourists from around the globe. Vaishno Dev Temple in Jammu stands out among them while Amarnath Temple can also be found here; Hazratbal Shrine in Srinagar remains popular as well.
Jammu-Kashmir’s culture and traditions reflect centuries of influences that have had an effect on this region over the years, yet its inhabitants continue to preserve and appreciate this rich heritage regardless of conflicts and difficulties experienced.
Economy and Industry
Jammu-Kashmir is predominantly an agricultural region; agriculture serves as its backbone economically. The region is widely recognized for producing high quality saffron and apples; more recently however, governments have promoted alternative income sources for farmers through horticulture, floriculture and other avenues such as fruit tree farming.
Tourism represents another industry with significant potential, alongside agriculture. As an attractive tourist destination with gorgeous landscapes, rich cultural traditions, and adventure sports opportunities – tourism stands to benefit substantially. Unfortunately however, its success remains threatened by conflict and instability throughout the region.
Jammu and Kashmir has a relatively small industrial sector consisting primarily of handicrafts and leather goods. The region is widely recognized for its intricate embroidery work, handloom weavings and paper mache pieces that come out of Jammu & Kashmir – these types of production were heavily affected during war time by lack of infrastructure resulting in production being disrupted as a result.
Indian authorities have taken measures to spur economic development in this region. This includes creating industrial parks and special economic zones; hydroelectricity can also provide plenty of power.
Jammu-Kashmir relies heavily on agriculture, with small industries and tourism also contributing to revenue streams. Unfortunately, ongoing conflict and instability has stunted economic development potential of this region.
Tourist destinations in Jammu and Kashmir
Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, is well known for its gardens, lakes and houseboats. Attractions for visitors to Srinagar include Dal Lake, Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh among many others.
Gulmarg: Gulmarg, situated 2,650 metres above sea level, is a highly popular adventure sports and ski resort that attracts numerous tourists who come for its mountain scenery, beautiful green meadows and iconic gondola rides.
Pahalgam: Pahalgam, an idyllic hillstation and trekking destination located at the confluence between Lidder River and Sheshnag River is known for its exquisite landscapes as well as horseback riding and trekking adventures. This region also is well known for horseback riding opportunities in this idyllic environment.
Leh-Ladakh, located in northernmost India, is an astounding region known for its beautiful landscapes, Buddhist Monastery and adventure sports activities available there. Furthermore, this area renowned for its rich cultures and traditions that span over millennia.
Jammu, the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir, is famed for its historical monuments and stunning temples. Tourist attractions in Jammu include Bahu Fort, Raghunath temple and Amar Mahal Museum – three popular tourist spots that draw millions annually.
Sonamarg, also referred to as “The Meadow of Gold”, stands 2,740 meters above sea level and offers picturesque landscapes, adventure sports activities, and trekking opportunities.
Jammu and Kashmir is an amazing tourist destination that should not be overlooked, boasting natural beauty, culture and adventure in abundance. However, due to conflict and security issues that exist there, tourists should exercise extreme caution during their trip.
Conclusion of Jammu and Kashmir
India is taking measures to promote economic development and infrastructure across its regions despite challenges, with particular attention paid to agriculture, tourism and small-scale industry sectors with great potential.
There’s also great hydroelectric potential available which could generate energy to power development initiatives in these sectors.
Jammu-Kashmir is an area with an exciting culture, stunning natural surroundings, and vibrant history, that deserves exploration.
However, before traveling it is wise to keep informed and be wary about any security threats present there.